Friday, 9 June 2017


By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  22:50   No comments


By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  22:41   No comments

An Analysis of Management of Acute STEMI in CCU with Special Reference to Drug Prescription

By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  22:38   No comments

MNC drugs a gamble on indian cancer patients.

By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  22:24   No comments

               MNC drugs a gamble on indian cancer patients

CCMB(centre for cellular and molecular biology) say that nearly 40% of cancer patients do not respond to chemotherapeutic drugs used in indian hospitals.

                                            CANCER REALITY

                                                 25L: People in india live with the disease.

7L: And above new cancer patients registered every year.

  5.56L: Cancer-related death in india. 


                                                          Types of cancer:

                                                       MEN: cancer of the mouth and lungs.                                                                                WOMEN: Cancer of the cervix and breast These                                                                                account for more than half of all                                                                                     deaths in india.

                                                      WOMEN AND CANCER:                                                                                                                1. Every 8 minutes a women dies from                                                                                   cervical cancer.
                                                                       2.for every 2  women who are newly                                                                                      diagnosed with breast cancer, one                                                                                      women dies of it    
                                    CANCER TREATMENTS:
                                              radiation therapy,immuno therapy,
                                               hormone therapy,stem cell transplant,,
                                               targated therapy and precision medicine.


Wednesday, 2 March 2016

latest terms related COPD.(Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  07:46   No comments


These medications work to relax the muscles in airways through the parasympathetic pathway, by relaxing the tense state of the muscles. These are available as controllers.


These medicines work to relax the muscles in your airways through the sympathetic pathway. These are available as rescue relievers and controllers.


A medicine used for relaxing muscles around the lungs’ airways allowing the airways to open up and expand. These include anticholinergics and Beta-agonists.


Plastic tubing used to supply oxygen through the nose.


Medicines that mimic the action of a group of hormones produced by adrenal glands. They are anti-inflammatory. This medicine can be inhaled or taken by mouth.


Shortness of breath. Difficult or labored breathing.


Flare-ups of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in which symptoms get worse. Changes in medical treatment may be needed.


Rapid breathing often caused by being nervous or panicked.


Too little oxygen in the body.


A portable device to take inhaled medicine in a couple of breaths.

Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

This is oxygen condensed into a liquid state by extreme cold. A small amount of liquid oxygen is a very large amount of oxygen gas. The big tank at your house can also fill easy-to-carry smaller tanks when you leave your house. Nebulizer
This is a device that delivers medicines in a fine spray or mist. It requires no special coordination. It is a good method for getting drugs directly into the lungs.

Oxygen Concentrator

A machine used for oxygen therapy. It has a pump that takes oxygen from the air, and moves it through a long narrow tube into the nose. It concentrates the amount of oxygen taken from the air. There are now portable oxygen concentrators available.

Oxygen Therapy

A medically prescribed system of providing supplemental oxygen to the body. It is prescribed when diseased lungs are not able to meet the body’s oxygen needs.

Pulse Oximetry

This test measures how much oxygen is in your blood. The test is easy, and the result is a percentage. The doctor will put a sensor on your finger or ear and a light will be used to measure the oxygen content in your blood. The result of this test may show if you need oxygen therapy.


This is a part of a Pulmonary Function Test. It measures the amount of air able to be breathed out forcefully. It is used to help diagnose lung diseases.


Mucus, usually loose in the lungs. It may be coughed up.

Tuesday, 1 March 2016

Study of Impact the growing international trade and travel increased the risk of spreading zoonoses infectious disease like EBOLA, MERS and AIDS, SARS OR highly pathogenicAVIAN influenza, all originated in wild animals and were spred person to person.

By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  04:48   No comments
Dr. Aleem sarwar

Influenza’ A (H1N1) virus is a subtype of influenza A virus and was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in humans.  The two dominant proteins found on the virus surface are known as Hemagglutinin (often referred to as “H” or “HA”) and Neuraminidase (“N” or “NA”). 
The three types of influenza virous generally differ in the severity of illness that they cause.
It is a virus that most commonly causes the most severe flu symptoms.
Type- B and -C.
Type B is weaker and Type C is the weakest of all, rarely causing any symptoms.

In the midst of all the worries and concerns relating to the recent outbreak of Type A H1N1 influenza some truly striking data about influenza viruses in general are often forgotten. Every year in the United States more than 30,000 people die as a result of infection with “seasonal influenza”, and more than 200,000 people require hospitalization for treatment.
The three main types of influenza virus generally differ in the severity of illness that they cause. Type A influenza is the virus that most commonly causes the most severe flu symptoms, while Type B is weaker and Type C is the weakest of all, rarely causing any symptoms.

What Do the H and the N Mean in the Name of the Virus

Influenza viruses can be identified based on the chemical structure of specific proteins found on the outer surface coat of the virus particle. The two dominant proteins found on the virus surface are known as Hemagglutinin (often referred to as “H” or “HA”) and Neuraminidase (“N” or “NA”). Both of these proteins play critical roles in the lifespan of an influenza virus.
The array of flu viruses that have been characterized over the years can carry different versions of H or N, and thus the numbering system. There are more than 10 known forms of H and as many as 9 versions of N. Thus different strains can be characterized by the type of H or N that they carry e.g. H1N1, or H3N2, etc. The avian flu that focused the world’s attention several years ago was known as H5N1.

What Do the H and N Proteins Do?

The H protein is important in allowing the virus to adhere to cells and gain entry so that the virus can be replicated. The name “hemagglutinin” means that the protein can cause red blood cells to clump together, one of the features originally associated with the flu virus when tested in laboratory dishes. The N protein, “neuraminidase”, is an enzyme that helps the virus to escape from cells once new viral particles have been replicated. This enzyme can cleave specialized sugar molecules that are often associated with the proteins found on the surface of cells. This is the protein that is targeted by flu medications such as Tamiflu and Relenza.

Flu Viruses Can Change Quickly

Unlike many other viruses, the nucleic acid that is found inside the influenza virus family is RNA not DNA, making them “RNA viruses”. Additionally, the instructions for making a new virus are carried in 8 separate fragments of RNA and not in one large contiguous piece of DNA as is true for many other viruses like chickenpox. The presence of the multiple fragments means that if a cell is infected simultaneously with two different versions of influenza, the fragments can be shuffled to generate a new form.

Fighting Flu Virus

Fortunately, seasonal influenza can be combated by vaccinations, since flu specialists are often able to predict the strain of flu that will predominate during an upcoming flu season. New technologies that are being developed for generating vaccines against influenza will likely substantially decrease the time between identifying a new flu strain and generating a vaccine. But remember to be vigilant, wash your hands frequently, cough or sneeze into a tissue or your sleeve (not your hand) and if you think you might have the flu contact your family physician for treatment options and advice.
Read more about the biology of Influenza viruses at the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease ( NIAID) or at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


By Dr. Aleem Sarwar   Posted at  04:41   No comments

  • A high-salt diet  damages liver in adults and developing embryos.
  • Results in oddly shaped cells.
  • An increase in cell death.
  • Decrease in cell proliferation, which can contribute to the development of fibrosis. 
  • Researchers found that treating damage cell with vitamin C appeared to partially counter the ill effects of excess salt.                                    

                                                           USES OF SALT

  1. Our bodies need a small amount of salt, one teaspoon per day for a healthy adult.
  2. Sodium ions from  the savory mineral help regulate water movement within the body and conduct nerve impulses. 

                                                        THE  STUDY

  • Xuesong  yang from jinan university in china and colleagues wanted to explore the potential effect at a cellular  level.
  • The researchers gave adult mice a high-salt diet and exposed chick embryos to a briny environment. 
  • Some research indicates that in addition to high blood pressure, over consumption  of sodium can damage the liver.  

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